Below you will find a complete set of details for 2 different references / citations that are related to the computation of standard scores (z-scores) in situations where the population mean and standard deviation are known.

Reference for Citing the Online Calculator

- Soper DS. Standard Score (Z-score) Calculator [Online Software]. Available from https://www.analyticscalculators.com. 2024.

Reference from the Scientific Literature

- Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge; 2013.